Monday, March 31, 2014

Artificial life in Yeast Piece

Through research for seven years , an international team of scientists has created a synthetic chromosome of yeast cells for the first time . This new breakthrough is a big jump from previous studies that successfully made the chain synthetic chromosomes for bacteria and viruses . Now the path of the " designer " of organisms more wide open . (see also: waptrick)

In their study , the researchers create molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA ) and combine them to construct artificial artificial yeast chromosomes . Yeast is complex eukaryotic organisms that have a nucleus in their cells. Plants , animals , and humans also classified as eukaryotic organisms have a nucleus in their cells.

The success of creating a yeast chromosome is a major step in the science of synthetic biology . " It is most proud of is we were able to change the set of natural chromosomes , and lay the whole chain from scratch , " says Jef Boeke head of research , synthetic biologists from the Langone Medical Center at New York University . Their results have been published in the journal Science , March 27, 2014 .

Since 4,000 years ago , humans have used yeast to make alcohol . Increasingly widespread use of yeast , including to make bread , beer and wine . In the modern era , the fungus was also used in the manufacture of vaccines , drugs and biofuels .

Boeke and his team put on a special computer program for designing chromosome III , labeled synIII , from yeast . The results were then combined with the design of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is commonly used to make beer and bread . Chromosomes that have been the smallest size of 16 yeast chromosomes . Chromosomes that regulate how cells divide and receiving genetic changes .

Boeke said they make chromosomes look normal . According to him , who had a yeast synthetic DNA on the chromosome has properties almost identical with natural yeast . With a technique known as " randomization " , the scientists can play through a series of yeast genes like stack of cards . They could create millions of new arrangement of pile " cards " that genetic .

As a result , the yeast may have diverse properties and functions . Researchers can create a synthetic yeast to produce rare drugs such as artemisinin which is used in the treatment of malaria . The hepatitis B vaccine can also be made to " outsmart " a series of yeast chromosomes . On a larger scale , synthetic yeast can be used to make biofuels more efficiently , such as alcohol , butanol , or biodiesel . " It makes people can make the transition from dependence on petroleum, " says Boeke .
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The success of building a eukaryotic chromosomes , organisms whose cells have a nucleus , gets an appreciation . " This is an outstanding example that synthetic biology can be used to rewrite the chromosomal sequence in large scale , " said Craig Venter of the J. Craig Venter Institute , which have created the first synthetic bacterium in 2010 . Paul Freemont from Imperial College London said the findings change the understanding of the genome and chromosome engineering . " This is evidence that the chromosomes can be redesigned, disintensis , and works in living cells , " he said .

source:http://www. tempo .co/

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