Monday, March 31, 2014

Artificial life in Yeast Piece

Through research for seven years , an international team of scientists has created a synthetic chromosome of yeast cells for the first time . This new breakthrough is a big jump from previous studies that successfully made the chain synthetic chromosomes for bacteria and viruses . Now the path of the " designer " of organisms more wide open . (see also: waptrick)

In their study , the researchers create molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA ) and combine them to construct artificial artificial yeast chromosomes . Yeast is complex eukaryotic organisms that have a nucleus in their cells. Plants , animals , and humans also classified as eukaryotic organisms have a nucleus in their cells.

The success of creating a yeast chromosome is a major step in the science of synthetic biology . " It is most proud of is we were able to change the set of natural chromosomes , and lay the whole chain from scratch , " says Jef Boeke head of research , synthetic biologists from the Langone Medical Center at New York University . Their results have been published in the journal Science , March 27, 2014 .

Since 4,000 years ago , humans have used yeast to make alcohol . Increasingly widespread use of yeast , including to make bread , beer and wine . In the modern era , the fungus was also used in the manufacture of vaccines , drugs and biofuels .

Boeke and his team put on a special computer program for designing chromosome III , labeled synIII , from yeast . The results were then combined with the design of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is commonly used to make beer and bread . Chromosomes that have been the smallest size of 16 yeast chromosomes . Chromosomes that regulate how cells divide and receiving genetic changes .

Boeke said they make chromosomes look normal . According to him , who had a yeast synthetic DNA on the chromosome has properties almost identical with natural yeast . With a technique known as " randomization " , the scientists can play through a series of yeast genes like stack of cards . They could create millions of new arrangement of pile " cards " that genetic .

As a result , the yeast may have diverse properties and functions . Researchers can create a synthetic yeast to produce rare drugs such as artemisinin which is used in the treatment of malaria . The hepatitis B vaccine can also be made to " outsmart " a series of yeast chromosomes . On a larger scale , synthetic yeast can be used to make biofuels more efficiently , such as alcohol , butanol , or biodiesel . " It makes people can make the transition from dependence on petroleum, " says Boeke .
(see also: situs download lagu)

The success of building a eukaryotic chromosomes , organisms whose cells have a nucleus , gets an appreciation . " This is an outstanding example that synthetic biology can be used to rewrite the chromosomal sequence in large scale , " said Craig Venter of the J. Craig Venter Institute , which have created the first synthetic bacterium in 2010 . Paul Freemont from Imperial College London said the findings change the understanding of the genome and chromosome engineering . " This is evidence that the chromosomes can be redesigned, disintensis , and works in living cells , " he said .

source:http://www. tempo .co/

Thursday, March 13, 2014

Bird Data, Penelopides exarhatus

Small ( 53 cm ) to the tribe Bucerotidae , black to tail . Males : face and throat yellow , female : black head and throat . (see also: obat burung)

Other information
Latin Name : Penelopides exarhatus
English Name : Sulawesi Hornbill
The name Indonesia : Sulawesi Hornbill
Altitude : 650-1100 m
Ekstralimital : -
Endemic : Sulawesi
Indonesian endemic : Yes
Regional Distribution : Sulawesi
IUCN Status : VU
Status Year : 2012
Type Protected : Yes
Birds Limited Distribution : Not

Description Shape : Horn ( casque ) typical white hornbill .
Sound Description : A series of rapid but short tone , disyllabic , or horn -like braying , also short -pitched voice " claak . "
Habits : Widespread in the range spreading and locally fairly common in the lowlands .
Spreading Global : Endemic Sulawesi subregions
Local deployment : Two subspecies ( P. e . Exarhatus ) : Lembeh Island , Sulawesi north to the middle of the boundary of Lake Lindu , and ( P. e . Sanfordi ) : Sulawesi Island ( except for the north and central Sulawesi ) , Muna , and Butung ( Buton ) . (see also: vitamin burung)
Habitat : lowland primary forests and hills , forest and swamp forest edge , rarely seen in secondary forest .
Pressure : Reduced population due to the loss of natural forests and hunting
Other Information : Although the global population has not been estimated , but locally this type are quite common .


Friday, March 7, 2014

Phylum Porifera - Characteristics, Examples and Porifera Reproduction Process

Sponge is derived from the Latin name , porous and fer . Mean pore porous , and has a sense of bringing fer . It is also porous sponge Often called the animal or the which is one of the multicellular animal phyla Simplest form Compared with other animal phyla .
(see also: pakan burung)

Phylum Porifera - Characteristics , Examples and Porifera Reproduction Process
Image credi : Wikipedia.Org
Sponge living heterotrophic manner. The food is bacteria and plankton . The food that Enters the body within the fluid to form sponges also Referred to as liquid eaters . Sponge habitat is usually in the ocean .

The characteristics of Porifera
Sponges are animals of the phylum Porifera the ( / pɒ ; rɪ ; fə ; rə ; / ; , the which means the carrier pores ) . Their bodies Consist of jelly - like arrangement mesohyl sandwiched between two cells thick notes . While all animals have unspecialized cells that can be turned into some special cells, sponges are unique moment has most some special cells that can be turned into other types , Often migrating to the main cell arrangement and mesohyl within the system . Sponges do not have nervous , digestive or circulatory systems . Conversely , some great entrusted maintain a constant flow of water passing through their bodies For Obtaining food and oxygen and to explain getting rid of waste , and the form of their bodies are adapted to maximize the efficiency of For water flow . All water sessile animals and , although there are freshwater species , the which are some of the great sea ( salt water ) species , starting from zone to a depth at low tide using increasingly more 8 . 800 mtr . ( 5 , 5 mi ) . While some large more or less 5 , 000-10 , 000 species are known to consume bacteria and other food particles in the water , some host photosynthesizing micro - organisms as endosymbionts and these alliances Often produce more food and oxygen than they consume . Some type of sponge that lives in a poor food environment has Become carnivores that prey especially on small crustaceans . Most of the wear species sexual reproduction , release the sperm cells to fertilize an ovum within a water pot for that in most species are released and others are being held by mother . The fertilized eggs form larvae swim roomates in the track area to settle Regardless .

As one Fileum animals , sponges also features its own characteristics . The traits used to membedakanya from other animal phyla in order to study it properly .

Morphological characteristics of Porifera
His body has pores ( ostia )
Sponge body asymmetry ( irregular ) , although some radial symmetry .
Shaped like a tube , vase , bowl , or plant
Its color varies
Not switching area ( sessile )
Anatomical characteristics of Porifera
Has three types of water channels items, namely askonoid , sikonoid , and leukonoid
By means of intracellular digestion in koanosit and amoebosit
Examples of the types and Porifera
Types of Porifera . Already we recognize that spicules composed of calcium and silicate . With the basic constituent substance of sponge types can be classified . Here is a 3 - class or type and Examples of Porifera .

a) Class Calcarea , Porifera this first group have spicules made ​​of calcium . Usually live in the sea water is not deep or shallow . For example , Scypha gelatinous , and also Leucosolenia Grantia .

b ) Class Hexactinellida , this second group have spicules made ​​of grit or silicate substance . Her life at sea within , for example Pheronema sp . , Euplectella and also Regadrella sp .
(see also: pakan burung pleci)

c ) Class Demospongiae , this third class have spicules made ​​of grit and substance of protein ( spongin ) or just spongin alone . Her body was soft and did not have a skeleton . Habitat is in shallow sea , has a number of parts very much , for example Euspongia officinalis ( sponge bath ) , Spongilla , Haliclona , Microciona and also Corticium .


Wednesday, March 5, 2014

Second Largest in the World, Ragunan Want to like Singapore or Washington?

JAKARTA - Appointed as Chairman of the Supervisory Board of Parks Margasatawa Ragunan , Hashim Djoyohadikusumo , plans to hold a public meeting , from the ranks of parliament , NGOs , to the communities . The goal is to be able to beautify Ragunan .

( see also: lomba burung )

" Our discussion , the public wants what the Ragunan Jakarta ? We want to make international class like in Singapore ? In San Diego ? Like in Washington ? Keep us open public input , " Hashim said after meeting with Jakarta Governor Joko Widodo at City Hall , Jakarta , Thursday ( 08/22/2013 ) .

This is because he expressed Ragunan Zoo has the largest area in the world's second largest while the first in Canada . "Hence , Ragunan potential is incredible, " said Hashim .

Related to short-term targets , Hashim said it will fix Ragunan facilities are still lacking . However , Hashim asserts that the admission price is only Rp 4,000 Ragunan . Because of the cheap ticket prices , Hashim still considering the possibility of raising it .

"The price of tickets for Rp 4 thousand since 2003 , has been almost 10 years . Inflation We already know how many , how many times the fuel price hike , but the ticket prices remain the same , " he explained .

Hashim also pledged to improve employee welfare . " Yes , we want to see his vision to where ? Vision if it wanted so (preferably red) , we have to adjust , there must be a budget . Budget we have a strict watch , lest any corruption , that no leakage of - the leakage . I was placed in there for supervision , " he said .

On October 3, 2013 , said Hashim , Governor Jokowi Ragunan planned to open a new one . Therefore , it continues to seek the best solution for the discussion Ragunan .

" Cage - less cage enough . For apes , monkeys , and gorillas is good , but still lacking , still have no extras . Amount animals are lacking as well , " he concluded .

( see also: lomba burung piala presiden )

Related fare tickets , previously Governor Jokowi has the option to increase them or stick with the price of Rp 4 thousand by adding subsidies for its management . The recreation function if you want a cheap yes Rp 4 thousand , but in Cisarua only Rp140 thousand , if I am not mistaken in Surabaya Rp20 thousand , Bandung Rp20 thousand , cook in Jakarta Rp 4 thousand , " said Jokowi .